Recursion in python is the process by which a function calls itself repeatedly until some specified condition has been satisfied. This process is used in place of iterative computations in which each action is stated in terms of a previous result; iterative programs are very big and complex.

In recursion, functions may directly or indirectly call themselves. If the call to a function occurs inside the function, it is called direct recursion. If the function calls another function, which makes a call to the first one, it is called indirect recursion.

Table of Contents

## How to use recursion in python?

To use recursion, You must declare a function that returns a value. Using that value makes a call to the function within a function. It will work as a loop and gives the desired output.

### Syntax

```
def function_name()
{
Statement_1
Statement_2
function_name() #recursive call to the function.
}
```

### Advantages of recursion

- Avoid unnecessary calling of functions.
- Solve problems in an easier way than using complex iterative loops.
- Complex programs can be easily written using recursion.

### Disadvantages of recursion

- Too many recursive functions may confuse the code.
- The recursive solution is logical, and it isn’t easy to debug and understand.
- Program execution becomes slower because of the function call and takes time to return a value.

## Examples of recursion in python

There are two types of recursion

- Direct recursion.
- Indirect recursion.

We will learn examples of both.

**Direct recursion in python**

Direct recursion means the function makes the call inside its own body. This concept is the same as direct recursion in python. Let’s understand it with the given an example.

### 1. Print numbers using recursion

Accept one number from the user and print the numbers from 1 to n using recursion.

Example

```
def printnum(lr, ur):
if lr > ur:
return
print(lr)
printnum(lr + 1, ur); #recursive call
n = int(input("Enter number:"))
printnum(1, n)
```

Output

```
Enter number:10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
```

### 2. Printing pyramid pattern using recursion in python

Accept the number from the user and print the pyramid pattern using an input. The number of lines in the pyramid should be equal to the number given by the user.

Example

```
def printn(num):
if (num == 0):
return
print("*", end=" ")
printn(num - 1) #recursive call to printn function
def pattern(n, i):
if (n == 0):
return
printn(i)
print("\n", end="")
pattern(n - 1, i + 1) #recursive call to pattern function
n = int(input("Enter number:"))
pattern(n, 1)
```

Output

```
Enter number:7
*
* *
* * *
* * * *
* * * * *
* * * * * *
* * * * * * *
```

### 3. Print Fibonacci number using recursion in python

Accept a number of terms from the user and print the Fibonacci series using recursion.

Example

```
def Fibonacci(n):
if n < 0:
print("Incorrect input")
elif n == 0:
return 0 #base case
elif n == 1 or n == 2:
return 1 #base case
else:
return Fibonacci(n - 1) + Fibonacci(n - 2) #recursive call to the function
n = int(input("Enter number of terms: "))
i = 0
for i in range(n):
print(Fibonacci(i),end="\t")
```

Output

```
Enter number of terms: 5
0 1 1 2 3
```

**Indirect recursion in python**

An indirect recursion is a process in which two or more functions call mutually call each other. Both the functions must have a base case.

### 1. Print numbers using an indirect recursive call

Accept range from user and print numbers using 2 functions the first function will can the second function to print the number and after printing the second function should call the first function. This process should execute until the function reaches the upper limit.

Example

```
def printn(lr, ur):
if lr <= ur:
print(lr)
lr += 1
fun(lr, ur) #indirect recursive call
else :
return
def fun(lr, ur):
if lr <= ur:
print(lr)
lr += 1
printn(lr, ur) #indirect recursive call
else :
return
n = int(input("Enter number:"))
printn(1, n)
```

Output

```
Enter number:5
1
2
3
4
5
```

**How recursion works in Python?**

Recursion in Python works the same as it works in other programming languages. The function calls itself from its own body.

**How to set recursion limit in Python?**

For large processing, Python interpreter gives ‘Maximum recursion depth exceeded in comparison’ error. So it is hard to use recursion for large processing. For this problem, Python provides a setrecursionlimit() function. Using this, we can execute the large recursive call.