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What is white box testing? Techniques and Process

White box testing (also described as the clear box testing, the testing of a glass box, the transparent box testing, and the testing of structural type) is a software development approach that, in addition to its functionality, examines the internal mechanisms or operations of a system (i.e. black-box testing). An inner view of the framework, as well as programming abilities, are used in white box testing to design the system.

The main aim of white box testing is to concentrate more on the software mobility of given inputs by the user and gaining unique outputs and enhance the software’s safety.

The word ‘white box’ is used because of an internal system viewpoint. The name of the translucent box or white box or transparent box signifies the capacity to see beyond its internal dynamics through the external layer of the program.

Information regarding Box Testing

Box testing generally refers to an approach that examines the functionality of some specified system.

There are exactly 2 divisions of Box testing. They are termed as black box testing and white box testing.

The testers to examine the functionalities need excellent knowledge and good skills to create some test case studies for white box and black box testing.

What is the entire process for working in the white box testing?

The white box checking or the working process is as mentioned below:

  • Input: Standards, Technical specifications, specifications for design, programming language.
  • Automating: Implementing risk assessment to direct the whole procedure.
  • Proper preparation of tests: Constructing test cases to protect the whole code. Until error-free code is attained, run rinse-repeat. Often, the conclusions are shared.
  • Output: The full report of the complete evaluation process is planned.

Which tests are done in the testing of the white box?

The white box testing involves different checks, which are as shown in:

  1. Checking routes
  2. Checking a loop
  3. Checking of Condition
  4. Checking based on the perspective of memory
  5. The program’s evaluation results

Which unique software is utilized for carrying out white box testing?

The resources or software used for carrying out an exact white box testing are mentioned below:

  • CPPUnit
  • Parasoft JTest
  • Cucumber
  • JsUnit
  • csUnit
  • HTMLUnit

Implementation procedure

The procedure of implementing the white box testing is quite easy and is carried out in simple 5 steps. They are written below:

  1. Phase 1: Collect requirements, conceptual specifications, documentation of design, code.
  2. Phase 2: Planning of the Research Plan
  3. Phase 3: Strategic planning of test case
  4. Phase 4: Conduct for test case
  5. Phase 5: Disclosing & repairing problems with faults


To understand perfectly what white box testing means, let’s have a quick grasp on its illustration which is represented below:

Demo_white_test1 (int p, int q) {         #Demo_white_test1 is some function
    int result_demo1 = p+ q; 
    if (result_demo1> 0)
    	print ("Positive output is created", result_demo1)
    	print ("Negative output is created", result_demo1)

The white box cases for testing produced can be as mentioned below:

p=5, q=8 or p=-9, q=-3

What is the need?

The basic reasons for carrying out the white box testing are mentioned as:

  • It finds weaknesses in internal safety.
  • To verify the input method within the program.
  • Test the conditional loops for compatibility.
  • At an individual scale, to evaluate function, entity, and argument.

What are unique white box testing procedures?

There are many unique white box testing techniques utilized to produce an efficient result. They are presented below:

  • Coverage of Argument
  • Coverage of branch
  • Coverage of Condition
  • Coverage of the Finite State Machine
  • Coverage of Routes
  • Checking Data Flow

Some approaches are explained below:

  1. Coverage of an argument/statement: This approach aims to go into all arguments at least once. Each part of the code is then evaluated. Per node must always be traversed at least once in the situation of a flowchart. Since all code tracks are protected, it helps to figure out the defective coding.
  2. Coverage of condition: Condition coverage is computed as the ratio of the total number of situations to the total range of conditions that are wrong and right.

Pros of white box testing

  • White box testing optimizes the written programs by disclosing and resolving the errors. 
  • White box testing is simple to operate on the machines.
  • The extra description of the program is omitted.
  • White box testing is cheaper.

Cons of white box testing

  • Testing for white boxes can be very challenging.
  • White box testing increases the complexity to test some application or program.
  • White box evaluation, with complete knowledge of programming and execution, requires highly skilled resources.
  • The development is time-consuming and it needs time to thoroughly examine broader programming applications.
Do You Know?
1. What is Regression Testing?
2. What is White Box testing?

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